Henryk Czyż, Ryszard Malinowski, Teodor Kitczak, Adrian Przybyszewski
Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny, Szczecin
Alluvial soils, which are found under the grasslands in the study area, are formed by erosive and sedimentation activity of waters from surface and river flows. These waters in river valleys, depending on the activity duration, flow speed and the frequency of overflows, determine the spatial distribution of sediments, the variability of their mechanical composition, as well as the layers thickness, the content of organic matter and the diversity of the lay of alluvial material areas. The mentioned factors have significant influence on the structure of soil profile and on the elements circulation in the trophic chain: soil – water – plant – animal – human.
The aim of the study was the typological identification of soils in the floodplain of the Warta estuary valley, as well as the characterization of their basic physical and chemical features, with the special consideration to contamination with heavy metals. Moreover, the chemical content of the plant communities in the study area was described.
The studies were conducted in the Warta valley on the passage between Świerkocin and Kłopotowo, on grasslands which are part of the right flood terrace of the valley, between the water surface and the levee (floodbank).
Objects of varied habitat conditions and vegetation were isolated on the chosen area for the specific research .The characterization of soil conditions was performed according to the methods commonly used in pedology. Based on the description of morphological features of soil pits, the following subtypes of alluvial soils were distinguished: heavy humus, medium brown, actual medium, actual very light. Shaped plant communities were qualified to the following floristic types: Glyceria maxima, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa trivialis, Poa pratensis, Festuca rubra and Corynephorus cannescens.
The analyzed soils were evaluated as rich in general forms: P, K, Mg, Ca, Na i S. Compacted soils were usually rich in absorbable phosphorus, the content of absorbable magnesium was from very low to high, while in very light soils the content of phosphorus and magnesium was law. Regardless of the soil type, the content of absorbable potassium found in all soil samples was very low. The analyzed soils had the natural content of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn, Fe), only in surface layer of heavy humus alluvial soil high contamination with cadmium and raised contamination with zinc were found.
Varied content of macroelements was found in the grassland sward of the individual study points. The richest in P, K, Mg, Ca and Na was the community of rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis), located on river actual medium alluvial soil in the vicinity of embankment and subject to the constant flooding of Warta. The poorest in the analyzed heavy metals were the communities of Poa pratensis and Festuca rubra with Corynephorus cannescens on actual very light alluvial soil. Only in case of lead, high content in the sward of Phalaris arundinacea formed on actual medium alluvial soil near the water surface was found. As regards other heavy metals there was no excess of their content in the grassland sward of the studied area.
dolina ujścia Warty; gleba i szata roślinna użytków zielonych