Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energią PAN, Kraków
The thermal energy generation plant sector is quiet dispersed and heat generation market in Poland is regional. Half of demand for thermal power is generated in licensed heat-generating plants. The most numerous groups are sources with heat generation capacity lower than 50 MW. In the years of 2007–2011 their average share in general number of licensed heat generation plants amounted to 62%. In 2011 the total number of enterprises classified to this group amounted to 272. According to the installed thermal energy generation capacity, the average share of those companies amounted to about 14%. In 2011 the total thermal energy generation capacity installed in this group amounted to 5 443 MW. Hard coal is one of main fuel used in heat and warm water production in Poland. In consideration of pointed rules of dust emission coming from hard coal combustion, author look at it trough the quality parameters of hard coal. What value of hard coal calorific value (Q) and ash content (A) can abide standards of dust emission oblige in 2013–2016. Dust emission factor (WEpył) was calculated using an empirical formula. For the analysis the author has chosen hard coal with 18 000–28 000 kJ/kg of calorific value and 5–23% of ash content. There was an assumption, that combustion is held in stoker fired boilers (with or without mechanical stoker). The smoker fired boilers are mainly operated in local or industrial heat generating plants. Results of calculations were presented in tables. These tables can be helpful when someone want to estimated dust emission factor from combustion hard coal with specified quality parameters: calorific value (Q) and ash content (A). Since 2016 standards of dust emission will be more restrictive. The dust emission standards for the heat generation plant with thermal power lower than 50 MW will be lower than 100 mg/Nm3. Required effectiveness of dust removal in these plants for dust emission factor lower than 100 mg/Nm3 was calculated and results of calculations were presented in tables.
emisja pyłów; spalanie węgla; standardy misyjne
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