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Tadeusz Olkuski
AGH Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza

Streszczenie
Chosen methods of the hard coal use due to more and more restrictive standards of the natural environment protection have been presented in this study. Traditional combustion of hard coal used for electric and heat energy production meets strong protest of ecologists and considerable part of the local inhabitants, what forces changes of the electric and heat energy production structure in Poland. According to the author’s opinion, fast elimination of the raw material being a base of Polish power industry, or use of substitute raw materials for example renewable energy sources, is actually not realistic. In the year 2011, 59,0% of electric energy was based on the hard coal combustion and 33,5% was based on brown coal combustion. Thus in total, over 90% of electric energy is related with coal combustion. Also in heat engineering branch, in the year 2011, hard coal was a dominant fuel used for heat production (76,3%), and in plants belonging to PKD 35.3 group consumption of hard coal was even greater (92%). Renewable energy sources should be used locally, if it is only possible end economically profitable. Thus coal must be a basis of domestic power system, but its use should be modified, for ex ample vie introduction of new combustion techniques, implementation of boiler-turbine power units with sub-critical parameters, power units with over-critical parameters, fluidal boilers with recirculation system, gas-steam and gas-hybrid, as well as coal gasification or hydrogenation. Analysis of the use of alternative coal applications in power industry proved that they are numerous and some of them are very perspective. Intensive works related with coal gasification are actually conducted in Poland. It is very perspective method, particularly in case of earth gas. Synthesis gas can be obtained as a product of partial (air) gasification or total gasification (oxygen). Works aimed at oxygen pressure gasification are actually conducted in Poland. However, second method is also possible but it requires introduction of great amount of the air into generator in order to keep high oxygen-carbon ratio in the fuel. A consortium named as „Zgazowanie węgla” created in the year 2010 and consisting of a number of research units and their partners from mining industry allows solution of difficult problems and practical implementation of new technologies. Underground coal gasification requires presence of compact leak-proof rock body, what is not realistic in conditions of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin because of over one hundred old exploitation excavations within this region and resulting destruction of the rock body as well as cutting the rock body with numerous excavations. From the other side, ground gasification is quite sufficient and should not be troublemaking. All alternative methods of the coal use in power industry are aimed at natural environment protection via reduced or even zero emission of harmful gases and dusts. However, environmental protection aspects should be considered together with economical aspects. Even the best project, if too expensive, will never be implemented. Cost of the climate protection must not be transferred to local community by raising the electric energy bills. Every new method should be implemented gradually with acceptance of local citizens.

Słowa kluczowe
oddziaływanie węgla; alternatywne metody

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