Valerii Deshko, Inna Bilous, Volodimer Vynogradov-Saltykov, Maryna Shovkaliuk, Hanna Hetmanchuk
National Technical University of Ukraine "Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute", Ukraine
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Many old public buildings in Central and Eastern Europe are characterized by low energy efficiency and often lack of mechanical ventilation. The general trends are aimed to improve the energy efficiency of the building sector and to provide comfort conditions. The indoor air quality can be determined based on the CO2 concentrations.
In the article, a complex approach to the definition and analysis of data on the indoor CO2 concentration and the air exchange rate in educational institutions at natural air exchange and in the absence of mechanical air circulation was implemented. Educational institutions in Kyiv have been considered. The study of the CO2 concentration of indoor and outdoor air of three typical schools of mass development in the 80 s, as well as the training building of Igor Sikorsky KPI, was carried out. Experimental determination of the background CO2 concentration during the day next to the considered objects showed that the background concentration of CO2 is in the range of 400-420 ppm. Measurements of the CO2 concentration distribution were carried out after classes throughout the classroom area, according to which the difference between the values at the level of the working area was 30...180 ppm. It was found that the concentration of CO2 varies during classes between 700-1100 ppm. During the break, the CO2 concentration decreases to 500-1000 ppm, depending on the type of ventilation.
Experimental data on the dynamics of changes in the indoor CO2 concentration are used to determine the air exchange rate based on balances of air flows and CO2. It is shown that the number of present persons influences the indoor CO2 concentration more significantly than the air exchange rate. On the example of an experimental study of the CO2 concentration in the classrooms for high school students it was found that the air exchange rate during the classes is in the range of 0.4...0.75 h-1. During breaks the air exchange rate increases to 2.9-3.5 h-1. For the range considered, the weighted average air exchange rate is 0.8 h-1, and even with forced airing, the air exchange rate is insufficient to ensure acceptable CO2 concentration.
For the training building of Igor Sikorsky KPI a field experiment was carried out to determine the dynamics of changes in CO2 concentration in time and on the basis of it the air exchange rates for representative classrooms were determined. The concentration of CO2 ranged from 500 to 2000 ppm and increases by 350-850 ppm depending on the use and location of classrooms. Based on experimental data, the air exchange rate for the training building of the education institution is in the range of 0.35-0.7 h-1. During the periods of airing the air exchange may increase by 0.45 h-1, but this does not allow reaching the standard value. When analyzing the obtained results, simulation models of natural air exchange of the examined classrooms were used on the basis of the improved ASHRAE method. The natural air exchange rate based on simulations is in the -0.8…0.5 h-1 range. Negative values are explained by exfiltration, which is typical for the upper floors.
Not only the comfort and condition of the building envelope, but also the total energy consumption of the building depend on the actual level of air exchange rate. In the total energy balance the ventilation component is 30-60%. Further use of the obtained results can be connected with monitoring of the actual level of air exchange rate and its consideration during complex modernization or implementation of the ventilation systems with heat recovery in the premises of educational institutions.
educational institutions, air quality, СО2 concentration, air exchange, simulation modeling, field experiment, comfort conditions
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