Adam Senetra*, Iwona Krzywnicka*, Mai Do Thi Tuyet**
*University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland; **Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Vietnam
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Proper municipal waste management is one of the most important civilization challenges of a mankind in the light of the rules of sustainable development. The circular economy of waste management determines the improvement of current situation on condition that extracting resources and energy and the amount of the emission of harmful substances are limited. The reverse logistics is an important element of the management - the body of the processes of waste flow management and information connected with the flows, starting from the places where the waste is created to their place of destination in order to recycle various values (through reparation, recycling or conversion).
The research set two aims. The first aim was to evaluate the condition of the management of municipal waste col-lected as mixed and municipal waste collected as separate (the mixed waste and the selected waste) with the use of modi-fied rates created on the basis of Alankiewicz (2009). The second aim was to compare the selective collection of given fractions in particular voivodship cities in Poland (16 cities) with the use of spatial concentration coefficient and loca-tion quotient in order to assess the condition of municipal waste management. The fractions are as follows: paper and cardboard, glass, plastic, waste electrical and electronic equipment, bulky waste and biodegradable waste. The justifica-tion of the choice of the fractions is their highest share in the mass of selected waste and the fact that they are the most common waste selectively collected. The research was conducted in all voivodship cities in Poland.
The gained results prove a vast diversification of the effectiveness of municipal waste selective collection in voivodship cities in Poland. For all rates the results were similar. Moreover, coincident results were gained in the re-search conducted with the use of spatial concentration and the location quotients, used for the first time in this kind of analyses. This proved that the methodology can be used in such research. The concentration graphs for research phenom-ena and the values of location quotients (LQ) can be valuable and useful tools not only in evaluating the condition of waste management. They can be valuable tips for working out the recommendations for particular spatial units. Low loca-tion quotient (LQ), in comparison with other units, signifies that there are abnormalities and that there is a necessity to intensify activities in a given range. The rate can be treated as a kind of a ranking for the whole considered system with-out the necessity of making further calculations. Its changes in the following years would inform about changes in the level of the phenomenon and about taking or not taking corrective actions (recommendations). The tool can be used in constant monitoring and planning waste management in a global perspective for related units and considered processes. In the case of the six research fractions of a selective collection of waste, the evaluation was made only with the use of the theory of spatial phenomena concentration. The reliable results were gained. The results were coincident with general trends set with the use of modified rates determined by Alankiewicz. That is the base for the evaluation of the effective-ness and recommendations for selective collection of waste in voivodship cities in Poland.
municipal waste, selected waste, mixed waste, spatial phenomena concentration