Adam Zydroń, Krzysztof Szoszkiewicz
Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy, Poznań
The aim of this study was to determine the willingness of different social groups to incur expenses for the benefit of the environment. The scope of the study comprised an analysis of materials from a survey conducted in 2012 in the study area of the Wielkopolski National Park in different locations in the communes within the Park and in the city of Poznań. A total of 1002 questionnaires were collected in the course of the study. The questionnaire is composed of three parts. In the first part questions concerned general information on the Wielkopolski National Park (the state of knowledge, frequency of visits, importance of the Park to the visitors, preferred forest type, etc.). The second part contained questions concerning willingness of the respondents to incur expenses for the environment (donations for the possibility to use the value of the Wielkopolski National Park or a possible compensation for the inability to use the Park, as an alternative in case the respondents did not declare any amount of money would they be willing to do volunteer work for the Park). The third part comprised a socio-economic characteristic of respondents (sex, age, profession, net income per person in the family, education, place of residence). In the analysed group of respondents 61% were women, while the other 39% were men. Age of respondents ranged from below 18 years to over 60 years. The greatest number of people were from the age group of 18–25 years (37.1%), as well as 26–40 and 41–60 years (23.1%, 20.1%). Among respondents the greatest number lived in cities over 100 thousand inhabitants (35.6%), the other groups represented towns of 21 to 100 thousand (23.9%), towns up to 20 thousand inhabitants (23.5%), and villages (17%). The mean net monthly revenue from 1000 to 2500 PLN was declared by the greatest number of respondents (43.4%, 36.8%), while in terms of profession the most numerous group comprised students (34%) and office workers (16.6%). Recorded survey results were subjected to statistical and mathematical analyses using the Statistica and CANOCO programmes. The following statistical methods were applied: principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), called the canonical compatibility analysis. The aim of PCA was to determine the principal directions of variation in the matrix of responses given by the respondents. The Cattell’s scree test was performed to determine the number of significant principal components explaining the percentage of total variation of the matrix. In the process of analysis the normalised Varimax rotation was applied. Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) were performed for all responses obtained from respondents concerning their professions. CCA made it possible to construct a model, in which dependencies between environmental parameters and sociological traits were measured in the form of the sum of squares of deviations from the mean. The analysis selects a linear combination of environmental parameters so that the sum of squares of deviations from the mean is smallest. Analyses showed that support for the incurrence of costs for the environment is not connected either with the education of respondents or their knowledge on the Wielkopolski National Park and the frequency of visits to the Park. These three elements were connected with completely different directions of variation shown in PCA. Studies showed no dependence between income levels of respondents and the incurrence of costs for environmental purposes, which may be considered inconsistent with the theoretical income elasticity, which determines the relationship between income and willingness to pay environmental costs. PCA showed that income per person in the family of the respondent was only to a limited degree connected with the factor, which was determined both by the support for pro-environmental expenses and the amount of the declared annual fee. Professional groups most willing to incur costs for the environment were businessmen, for-esters and old age pensioners. The least willing group to cover costs for the environment comprised farmers, who at the same time were most willing to offer volunteer work for the Park. It may be concluded that despite the limited financial means farmers appreciate the financial value of the Park and are aware of their shared responsibility for its maintenance by declaring willingness to work for its benefit.
gotowość społeczeństwa; wartość środowiska
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