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Mateusz Kaczmarski*, Artur Chorostyński**, Andrzej Łach***, Marcin Wrona*
*The Jan Grodek State University in Sanok, Poland; **Rzeszow University, Poland; ***School Complex Nr 2 in Sanok, Poland (retired employee)
corresponding author’s e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abstract
The analysis of underground (spring) waters concerned 6 springs located in the eastern part of the Sanok District on the border of the Eastern and Western Carpathians (analysis of bioelements). There have been detected „natural mineral waters with sodium chloride content” with chemical admixtures such as: boron (HBO2>10 mg·dm-3) strontium (Sr > 10 mg·dm-3), barium (Ba > 3 mg·dm-3), Lithium (Li > 1 mg·dm-3), in a potential perspective of economic importance. The above-mentioned water from Tyrawa Solna, has a historical aspect, connected with salt-works, as signified by the name of the village. The publicly availablespring of Chopin from the Sanok park is characterized by „natural mineral water with calcium content” at the same time it is „low-sodium water” with a sodium content (< 3 mg·dm-3). The spring from Bykowce near Sanok, has "specific healing iron water" with iron (II) content above 10 mg·dm-3, while the spring on the Olchowce-Liszna route called „Nad Wodospadem” („At the Waterfall”) (Nature Monument) is rich in "specific healing sulphide water" with a divalent sulphur content of 3.8 mg·dm-3 (characteristic odour). The criterion of „specific boric therapeutic water” with HBO2 metaboric acid concentration higher than 5 mg·dm-3 (pharmacodynamic factors) (Regulation of the Minister of Health) meets the already mentioned water from Tyrawa Solna. This water also contains large amounts of sodium potassium, calcium and magnesium, and its mineralization exceeded 3500 mg·dm-3 (highly mineralized brine). On the border of the Eastern and Western Carpathians, moving south towards Slovakia, two sources were found in the Bieszczady Mountains (Mików, Radoszyce). Water from „Cudowne Źródełko” („The Miraculous Spring”) in Radoszyce (surroundings) belongs to soft waters (hardness = 10 German degrees) and to low mineralized ones (mineralization < 500 mg·dm-3). Bioelements that are found in trace amounts in spring waters i.e. iodine < 0.3 and fluorine < 0.1 [mg·dm-3] and selenium and vanadium < 20, zinc and copper < 10, chromium and nickel < 5, molybdenum < 1 [μg·dm‑3] were also determined. Chemical analyses were performed using the following methods: AAS, ICP-OES, ICP-MS, IC, potentiometry (pH), conductometry (EC), ORP potential, turbidimetry, argentometry and acid-base titration. The influence on the functioning of the human body and some bioelements is described.

Keywords 

springs, bioelements, mineral waters, medical waters, trace analysis, AAS, ICP-OES, ICP-MS, IC

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