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Przemysław Baran, Mariusz Cholewa
Uniwersytet Rolniczy, Kraków

Abstract
Soil used as a material to form earth structures has been divided according to EN ISO 14688 on natural and anthropogenic soil. In the process of electricity and heat production, during combustion of carbonaceous material the various types of waste has been arising, such as: fly ashes, slags, ash-slags, etc. These wastes have a very good compaction properties, which is use in the construction of flood banks, dykes and embankments. The ashes are often used to improve and stabilize cohesive soils (which are characterized by a high degree of plasticity) and organic soils. The addition of fly ash improves the shear strength of the soil and reduce the deformability. It is important that before using anthropogenic soil for construction purposes, examine its suitability for use within a given type of a structure and the most effective method of verification are laboratory and field tests. Knowledge of geotechnical properties of soils is essential for the economic and safe design of earth structures. Stability calculations of a ground, slopes, and earth pressure on retaining structures, it would not be possible without the knowledge of soil shear strength and the values of the parameters defining this strength.
Destructive tests of model embankments, made of two types of soil: natural (silty sand) and anthropogenic (ash-slag) have been performing for the purpose of this article. The aim of this study was to reach the real values of strength parameters - parameters that determine the safety of earth structures, and to confront them with strength parameters obtained from a standard tests. Problems with determination of real values of the angle of internal friction and cohesion in soil inspire to seek alternative methods involving the trial loading of embankment in real dimensions, simulating a usability load. That method requires in situ studies on a large scale of the embankment and to solve the inverse boundary problem. In this issue the known data are operational or limit loads, and the corresponding displacement, and the unknowns are the values of soil parameters.
The authors of this article presented a similar to the described above method for determining the values of selected soil strength parameters, based not on the large scale but on laboratory test models in semi-technical scale. Parameters which we were looking for were: the angle of internal friction (F) and cohesion (c). After forming the embankments test model with slopes 45° and 60°, and performing overload tests, the limit load applied in top of the embankment model and slip surface have been obtaining. These data allowed to pass to the calculation phase using a back-analysis method by adopting one of the slopes stability methods estimation.
It was assumed that the tested models of embankments were in limit state just before the destruction. So, the stability coefficient F of the slope had value equals 1,0. To perform a stability analysis one of the limit equilibrium method (Morgenstern-Price method) was used. This method rigorously approaches to meet all of the equilibrium conditions governing the soil. A detailed description of the method can be found in another publication of the authors [1]. The determination of the limit strength parameters has been describing in this article.
The obtained landslide surfaces limited by a scarp and slip line have been dividing into 25 to 30 slices and the stability coefficients of model slopes was determining as follows:
− range values of the angle of internal friction and cohesion of silty sand has assumed: F = 10–40˚ (slope 45°), F = 20–50° (slope 60°), c = 5–30 kPa,
− range values of the angle of internal friction and cohesion of ash-slag has assumed: F = 10–50 (slope 45°), F = 20–60 ° (slope 60°), c = 0–40 kPa,
− for all combinations of the F and c from aforementioned range values, the stability coefficient have been obtaining (table 3–6).

On the basis of specific values of F, the pairs of F and c for which F = 1 (limit values of strength parameters) the limit curves have been plotting for all test models (Fig. 11 and 12). It was noted that smaller embankment failure load implicate the larger values of the limited angle of internal friction corresponding to lower limited cohesion. The range values of the angle of internal friction in this case is larger than in the soil that could take a larger load (limit curve is sharply inclined). There is also shown that the soil that could take a larger load is characterized by a smaller range of values of the angle of internal friction (limit curve is gently inclined).
From the limit equilibrium methods point of view, using the strength criterion described by equation (2), the conditions of stability corresponded to limit state (F = 1) is obtained for any configuration of limit strength parameters, provided that the configuration of the angle of internal friction and cohesion is laying on the limit curve.

Słowa kluczowe:
wytrzymałość na ścinanie, badania niszczące, analiza wsteczna, analiza stateczności

088. Determination of Strength Parameters of Ash-slag and Silty Sand Using a Destructive Embankments Model Tests

Keywords:
shear strength, destructive tests, back-analysis method, stability analysis

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Zadanie Czasopismo, Annual Set The Environment Protection Volume 17. Year 2015 (wersja elektroniczna) dofinansowane ze środków Ministerstwa Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego