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Ewa Ociepa, Maciej Mrowiec, Iwona Deska, Ewa Okoniewska
Politechnika Częstochowska

Abstract
The paper presents the results of snow contamination collected from roadsides and parks of Czestochowa in these areas which are out of the impact of a transport. The study was conducted within 2009–2011, in which 120 samples were tested in general. In snowmelt and rain waters that are brought to the sewer or land there are the following pollutants such as: suspended solids, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, biogenic compounds, and even bacteriological contamination. The scope of the research included: pH, total suspended solids, COD and heavy metals in waste water coming into the sewer.
On the basis of the survey and analysis of the literature data it is possible to admit the high variation in pollutant concentrations in snow cover, mainly related to the place of sampling. It should also be noted that the other factors, such as: the length of snow cover, the outside temperature, the duration of test runs, the direction of the winds, in the case of the particular type of a substance thawing roads, have affected the results of measurements substantially as evidenced by their differentiation to the point for further measurements.
The samples of snow from the sides of roads and parking areas have been characterized by a high content of suspended solids falling within the broad range from 165 to 1325 mg/dm3, COD values ranged from 89.0 to 825.0 mg O2/dm3. The pH of the snow stood at the level of 4.75–6.50. The analysis of the results has shown that the vast majority of the samples has been characterized by a natural or light acidity. The pH value was associated with a place and time of sampling. Most of the snow samples, collected from roadsides with heavy traffic and parking spaces, pointed to their acidic or slightly acidic character. The average content of heavy metals: Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni within the snow was generally low, which could be due to the fact that the tests were performed within metals concentration in water after the filtration of a suspension. It should be pointed out, however, that the snow from these areas that are exposed to the direct impact of transport, contained more metals for several times, compared with the periphery of busy roads or parking lots. On this basis it can be concluded that the main source of pollution of snow cover was, as analyzed, the catchment traffic, much less air pollution from the other sources. Therefore, the concentration of pollutants in snow cover areas directly adjacent to roads and parking spaces, due to the high concentration of pollutions, ought to be monitored. It should be paid attention to the need to standardize the procedures within sampling the snow.

Słowa kluczowe:
źródła zanieczyszczeń śniegu, zanieczyszczenie ścieków deszczowych, metale ciężkie, zawiesiny ogólne

034. Snow Cover as a Medium for Deposition of Pollution

Keywords:
snow contamination sources, runoff contamination, heavy metals, total suspended solids

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Zadanie Czasopismo, Annual Set The Environment Protection Volume 17. Year 2015 (wersja elektroniczna) dofinansowane ze środków Ministerstwa Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego